HOW PANDEMIC AFFECT TOURISM SECTOR IN INDONESIA?

Al. Shafrieldha 2

Indonesia is one of the countries that position the tourism sector as a target for domestic income. In 2015-2017, the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP was 4.25 percent, 4.13 percent, and 4.11 percent, respectively. In the next 2 years, the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP increased quite significantly, namely 4.5 percent and 4.8 percent. However, the performance of the tourism sector immediately plummeted when Indonesia experienced the Covid-19 pandemic. Due to the policy of limiting human mobility, the majority of economic activities in the tourism sector have stopped. This condition also had an impact on the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP which was reduced to 4.1 percent.

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The reduced contribution of the tourism sector to GDP was due to a drastic decline in the number of foreign tourists. Based on data from the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, in 2020 foreign tourists visiting Indonesia amounted to 4,052,923 people. Meanwhile, in 2021 that number will decrease drastically. The number of foreign tourists visiting Indonesia each month is constant at around 115,000 to 150,000 people. This figure is compared to previous years for the pandemic, for example in 2019, the total number of foreign tourists visiting Indonesia totaled 16,108,600 or decreased by 74.84 percent in 2020.

The high contribution of the tourism sector to GDP indicates the size of the community’s economic activity. focusing on the tourism sector. For several regions with major tourist destinations, the Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the regional economy. One example is the province of Bali. Bali is a tourist area that presents the beauty of the beach and the uniqueness of its traditions. The tourism sector in Bali can be said to be one of the best in Indonesia. According to the deputy governor of the province of Bali, quoted from Merdeka.com, the contribution of the tourism sector to the PAD of the province of Bali is 54 percent. The magnitude of this contribution represents the foundation of the community’s economic activities in the tourism sector.

The decline in the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP and PAD, as well as a decrease in the number of tourists at a glance, can only be seen as numbers. However, behind the decline in this number, it presents an alarming condition for the tourism sector in Indonesia during the pandemic. Based on information from the head of the Badung Regency PHRI, the occupancy rate of hotel occupancy in Bali is almost zero. In addition, the community around tourist attractions cannot sell or carry out their business activities because there are no buyers. Based on the research of Purwahita, Wardhana, Ardiasa, and Winia, there are at least six sub-sectors that have experienced an impact due to the decline in the Bali tourism sector during the Covid-19 period. All of these sub-sectors are holistic units in the tourism industry. These sub-sectors include hotels, travel agencies, tourist restaurants, gift and souvenir shops, transportation, and tourism employees.

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The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the tourism sector in Indonesia. Due to restrictions on mobility to reduce the spread of the virus, land, air, and sea transportation has been temporarily suspended. This causes a decrease in the number of foreign tourists. This condition creates a chain effect of an economic downturn in Indonesia, especially that given by the tourism sector. In terms of GDP, the contribution of the tourism sector decreased when compared to the years before the pandemic. Likewise in several major tourist destinations such as Bali, the contribution of the tourism sector to its PAD has also decreased significantly. This Covid-19 has made all other sub-sectors related to tourism also experience negative impacts such as the hotel industry, transportation, or travel agencies.

Reference :
Purwahita, A. R. M., Wardhana, P. B. W., Ardiasa, I. K., & Winia, I. M. (2021). Dampak Covid-19 terhadap Pariwisata Bali Ditinjau dari Sektor Sosial, Ekonomi, dan Lingkungan (Sebuah Tinjauan Pustaka). Jurnal Kajian dan Terapan Pariwisata, 1(2), 68-80.
Kadafi, M. (2021, 24 Mei). Selama Pandemi Covid-19, Bali Kehilangan 54 Persen Kontribusi Sektor Pariwisata. Diakses pada 3 Desember 2021 dari https://m.merdeka.com/peristiwa/selama-pandemi-covid-19-bali-kehilangan-54-persen-kontribusi-sektor-pariwisata.html
Kemenparekraf. (2020). Statistik Kunjungan Wisatawan Mancanegara 2020. Diakses pada 3 Desember 2021 dari https://kemenparekraf.go.id/post/Statistik-Kunjungan-Wisatawan-Mancanegara-2020
Liputan 6. (2021, 21 Maret). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Lebih Mengerikan dari Bom Bali. Diakses pada 3 Desember 2021 dari https://m.liputan6.com/bisnis/read/4495426/dampak-pandemi-covid-19-lebih-mengerikan-dari-bom-bali
Sugiari, LP. (2020, 10 April). Dampak Covid-19 bagi Pariwisata Jauh Lebih Parah dari Bom Bali. Diakses pada 3 Desember 2021 dari https://m.bisnis.com/amp/read/20200410/538/1225373/dampak-covid-19-bagi-pariwisata-jauh-lebih-parah-dari-bom-bali
Yusuf, F. (2021, 9 April). Akibat Pandemi, Pendapatan Masyarakat Bali Turun 40,6 Persen. Diakses pada 3 Desember 2021 dari https://m.republika.co.id/amp/qra3ns370.

Images :
Image 1 : https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/bali-pagoda-sunrise-indonesia_4694016.htm#page=1&query=indonesia%20tourism&position=0&from_view=search
Image 2 : https://kemenparekraf.go.id/post/Statistik-Kunjungan-Wisatawan-Mancanegara-2020
Image 3 :
https://www.freepik.com/free-photo/crowd-people-wearing-mask-walking-new-normal_16497147.htm#page=1&query=covid%2019&position=2&from_view=search

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